Viruses belonging to the species Rhinovirus C (formerly
named Human rhinovirus C) are distinct from RV-A and RV-B. These viruses have been referred to as HRV-A2 (Arden et al., 2006;
McErlean et al., 2007) due to its closer relationship with
RV-A in some analyses, while others have called them HRV-C (Lamson
et al., 2006; Lau et al., 2007; Lee et al.,
2007; McErlean et al., 2008) or HRV-X (Kistler et al.,
Proposals for the designation of RV-C types have been published (Simmonds
et al., 2010;
McIntyre et al., 2013).
There are now
57 RV-C types (C1-C57) designated.
Lethal Respiratory Disease Associated with Human Rhinovirus C in
Wild Chimpanzees, Uganda, 2013 (Scully et al., 2018).
The Virology Down Under Rhinovirus
blog (Ian M. Mackay)
Arden, K.E., McErlean, P., Nissen, M.D., Sloots, T.P.
and Mackay, I.M. (2006). Frequent detection of human rhinoviruses,
paramyxoviruses, coronaviruses, and bocavirus during acute respiratory
tract infections. J. Med. Virol. 78: 1232-1240.
Kistler, A., Avila, P.C., Rouskin, S., Wang, D., Ward,
T., Yagi. S., Schnurr, D., Ganem, D., DeRisi, J.L. and Boushey, H.A.
(2007). Pan-viral screening of respiratory tract infections in adults
with and without asthma reveals unexpected human coronavirus and human
rhinovirus diversity. J. Infect. Dis. 196: 817-825. Epub 2007 Aug 6.
Lamson, D., Renwick, N., Kapoor, V., Liu, Z., Palacios, G., Ju, J.,
Dean, A., St George, K., Briese, T. and Lipkin, W.I. (2006). MassTag
polymerase-chain-reaction detection of respiratory pathogens, including
a new rhinovirus genotype, that caused influenza-like illness in New
York State during 2004-2005. J. Infect. Dis. 194: 1398-1402.
Lau, S.K., Yip, C.C., Tsoi, H.W., Lee, R.A., So, L.Y.,
Lau, Y.L., Chan, K.H., Woo, P.C. and Yuen, K.Y. (2007). Clinical
features and complete genome characterization of a distinct human
rhinovirus genetic cluster, probably representing a previously
undetected HRV species, HRV-C, associated with acute respiratory illness
in children. J. Clin. Microbiol. 45: 3655-3664.
Lee, W.-M., Kiesner, C., Pappas, T., Lee, I., Grindle,
K., Jartti, T., Jakiela, B., Lemanske, R.F. Jr., Shult, P.A. and Gern,
J.E. (2007). A diverse group of previously unrecognized human
rhinoviruses are common causes of respiratory illnesses in infants. PLoS
ONE 2(10): e966. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000966.
McErlean, P., Shackelton, L.A., Lambert, S.B., Nissen,
M.D., Sloots, T.P. and Mackay, I.M. (2007). Characterisation of a newly
identified human rhinovirus, HRV-QPM, discovered in infants with
bronchiolitis. J. Clin. Virol. 39: 67-75.
McErlean, P., Shackelton, L.A., Andrews, E., Webster,
D.R., Lambert, S.B., Nissen, M.D., Sloots, T.P. and Mackay, I.M. (2008),
Distinguishing molecular features and clinical characteristics of a
putative new rhinovirus species, Human rhinovirus C (HRV C).
PLoS ONE 3(4): e1847 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001847.
McIntyre, C.L., Knowles, N.J. and
Simmonds, P. (2013). Proposals for the classification of human
rhinovirus species A, B and C into genotypically assigned types. J. Gen. Virol.
Scully, E.J., Basnet, S., Wrangham, R.W., Muller,
M.N., Otali, E., Hyeroba, D., Grindle, K.A., Pappas, T.E., Thompson,
M.E., Machanda, Z., Watters, K.E., Palmenberg, A.C., Gern, J.E. and
Goldberg, T.L. (2018). Lethal Respiratory Disease Associated with Human
Rhinovirus C in Wild Chimpanzees, Uganda, 2013. Emerg Infect Dis. 2018
Feb;24(2):267-274. doi: 10.3201/eid2402.170778. PubMed PMID: 29350142.
Simmonds, P., McIntyre, C.L., Savolainen-Kopra, C.,
Tapparel, C., Mackay, I.M. and Hovi, T. (2010). Proposals for the
classification of human rhinovirus species C into genotypically-assigned
types. J. Gen. Virol. 91: 2409–2419. 2010 Jul 7. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: