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  Genus: Parechovirus

Species: Human parechovirus (proposed new species name "Parechovirus A")

Type: Human parechovirus 1 (HPeV-1)
   (formerly human echovirus 22)
 
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 2 (HPeV-2)
   (formerly human echovirus 23)
 
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 3 (HPeV-3)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 4 (HPeV-4)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 5 (HPeV-5)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 6 (HPeV-6)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 7 (HPeV-7)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 8 (HPeV-8)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 9 (HPeV-9)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 10 (HPeV-10)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 11 (HPeV-11)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 12 (HPeV-12)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 13 (HPeV-13)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 14 (HPeV-14)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 15 (HPeV-15)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR
Type: Human parechovirus 16 (HPeV-16)  
5' UTR VP0 VP3 VP1 2A 2B 2C 3A 3B 3C 3D 3' UTR

(White areas indicate genes which haven't yet been sequenced completely; grey areas are where only partial sequences exist)

Virus Strain Region

Length

Accession No. Reference Comments

Human parechovirus 1 (HPeV-1)

HPeV-1 Harris (Ohio/56) CG 7339 L02971; S45208 Hyypiä et al., 1992  
HPeV-1 Bahrain 5'UTR(p) 392 AY158064 Legay et al., unpub.  
VP1(p) 474 AY158065 Legay et al., unpub.  
3D(p) 1378 AY158066 Legay et al., unpub.  
HPeV-1 A942-99 P1 2317 AB112486 Ito et al., 2004  
HPeV-1 A1086-99 P1 2317 AB112485 Ito et al., 2004  
HPeV-1 A10987-00 P1 2317 AB112487 Ito et al., 2004  
HPeV-1 A298-07 VP1 693 AB469777 Ito et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 A357-07 VP1 693 AB469778 Ito et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 A348-07 VP1 693 AB469779 Ito et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 A436-07 VP1 693 AB469781 Ito et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 A588-07 VP1 693 AB469782 Ito et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 54330 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172416 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 450976 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172417 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 152212 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172418 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 152329 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172419 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 152478 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172420 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 153231 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172421 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 252485 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172422 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 350642 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172423 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 350918 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172424 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 550163 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172425 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 151442 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172426 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 251949 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172427 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 350014 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172428 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 350841 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172429 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 450343 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172430 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 452176 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172431 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 152824 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172432 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 252228 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172433 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 252521 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172434 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 452252 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172435 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 452712 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172436 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 350757 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172437 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 152598 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172438 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 252581 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172439 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 451294 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172440 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 452538 (NL) VP1(p) 617 DQ172441 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-1 1999-1096 VP1(p) 617 EU077503 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 2004-1608 VP1(p) 620 EU077515 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 2005-938 VP1(p) 545 EU077519 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 2005-939 VP1(p) 617 EU077520 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 BNI-788St (Germany:Hamburg) CG 7355 EF051629 de Souza Luna et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 BNI-R90/03 (Germany) P1 2316 EU024630 de Souza Luna et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 BNI-R04/03 (Germany) VP1 693 EU024631 de Souza Luna et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 BNI-R09/03 (Germany) P1 2316 EU024632 de Souza Luna et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 BNI-R15/03 (Germany) P1 2316 EU024633 de Souza Luna et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 BNI-R21/03 (Germany) P1 2316 EU024634 de Souza Luna et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 BNI-R30/03 (Germany) P1 2316 EU024635 de Souza Luna et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 BNI-R32/03 (Germany) P1 2316 EU024636 de Souza Luna et al., 2008  
HPeV-1 7555312 (NL, 2003) CG 7380 FM178558 Zoll et al., 2009  
HPeV-1 JP-8282 (Japan, 2007) VP1 758 FJ648741 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8150 (Japan, 2007) VP1 738 FJ648742 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8154 (Japan, 2007) VP1 717 GQ149452 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8243 (Japan, 2007) VP1 743 FJ648743 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8276 (Japan, 2007) VP1 718 FJ648744 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8323 (Japan, 2007) VP1 718 FJ648745 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8329 (Japan, 2007) VP1 718 FJ648746 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8462 (Japan, 2007) VP1 743 FJ648747 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8262 (Japan, 2007) VP1 725 FJ648748 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8277 (Japan, 2007) VP1 731 FJ648749 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8304 (Japan, 2007) VP1 732 FJ648750 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8311 (Japan, 2007) VP1 734 FJ648754 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8312 (Japan, 2007) VP1 733 FJ648751 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8430 (Japan, 2007) VP1 732 FJ648752 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 JP-8457 (Japan, 2007) VP1 733 FJ648753 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 T-69 (Thailand, 2005) VP1 721 FJ648761 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 T-90 (Thailand, 2005) VP1 726 GQ149453 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 T-96 (Thailand, 2005) VP1 713 FJ648757 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 T-103 (Thailand, 2005) VP1 717 FJ648759 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 T-141 (Thailand, 2005) VP1 731 FJ648762 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-1 USA/WI/2004-10907 VP1(p) 693 FJ652384 Sedmak et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 PicoBank/HPeV1/a (Finland, 2000) CG 7296 FM242866 Williams et al., 2009  
HPeV-1 SH1 (China, 2008) CG 7314 FJ840477 Shan et al., 2009
HPeV-1 R2594/1990/HUN VP0 to 2A 3038 GU125390 Boros et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 R1242/1991/HUN VP0 to 2A 3038 GU125391 Boros et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 R1721/1992/HUN VP0 to 2A 3032 GU125392 Boros et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 R807/1993/HUN VP0 to 2A 3035 GU125393 Boros et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 R485/1993/HUN 5' UTR(p) 241 GU125394 Boros et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 R3861/1995/HUN VP0 to 2A 3032 GU125395 Boros et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 R12454/1998/HUN VP0(p)+VP3(p) 852 GU125396 Boros et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 BR/21/2006 CG(p) 6928 HQ696570 Drexler et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 BR/27/2006 CG(p) 6924 HQ696571 Drexler et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 BR/30/2006 CG(p) 6920 HQ696572 Drexler et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 BR/114/2006 CG(p) 6917 HQ696573 Drexler et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 BR/145/2006 CG(p) 6921 HQ696574 Drexler et al., 2010  
HPeV-1 SH401 (China/2009) CG 7305 JX441355 Wang et al., 2012  
HPeV-1 CAU10-NN (South Korea/2011) CG 7348 JX575746 Kim et al., unpub.  
HPeV-1 Cuernavaca/Mexico/2009 CG(p) 7217 KJ152442 Naccache et al., unpub.  
             

Human parechovirus 2 (HPeV-2)

HPeV-2 Williamson (Ohio/56) VP1 690 N/A Stanway et al., 1994  
CG 7329 AJ005695 Ghazi et al., 1998  
HPeV-2 IT99-5279 (ra/Roma99) 2A(p)+2B+2C(p) 441 AJ314828 Manzara et al., 2002  
HPeV2 T-144 (Thailand/2005) VP1 753 FJ648760 Pham et al., 2010b  
             

Human parechovirus 3 (HPeV-3)

HPeV-3 A308/99 CG 7321 AB084913 Ito et al., 2004  
HPeV-3 A317-99 P1 2313 AB112482 Ito et al., 2004  
HPeV-3 A354-99 P1 2313 AB112483 Ito et al., 2004  
HPeV-3 A628-99 P1 2313 AB112484 Ito et al., 2004
HPeV-3 Can82853-01 CG 7322 AJ889918 Abed and Boivin, 2005  
HPeV-3 152037 (NL) VP1(p) 611 DQ172442 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-3 251181 (NL) VP1(p) 611 DQ172443 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-3 251360 (NL) VP1(p) 611 DQ172444 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-3 251407 (NL) VP1(p) 611 DQ172445 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-3 450936 (NL) VP1(p) 611 DQ172446 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-3 451517 (NL) VP1(p) 611 DQ172447 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-3 251393 (NL) VP1(p) 611 DQ172448 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-3 451371 (NL) VP1(p) 611 DQ172449 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-3 250956 (NL) VP1(p) 611 DQ172450 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-3 252277 (NL) VP1(p) 611 DQ172451 Benschop et al., 2006b  
HPeV-3 2000-632 VP1(p) 595 EU077504 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-3 2000-752 VP1(p) 595 EU077506 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-3 2000-759 VP1(p) 617 EU077507 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-3 2000-976 VP1(p) 611 EU077509 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-3 T-68 (Thailand, 2005) VP1 708 FJ648756 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-3 T-102 (Thailand, 2005) VP1 708 FJ648758 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-3 JP-8590 (Japan, May 2008) VP1 749 GQ203502 Pham et al., 2011b  
HPeV-3 JP-8624 (Japan, Jun 2008) VP1 751 GQ203503 Pham et al., 2011b  
HPeV-3 USA/WI/2003-10661 VP1 678 FJ652380 Sedmak et al., 2010  
HPeV-3 USA/WI/2003-10662 VP1 678 FJ652381 Sedmak et al., 2010  
HPeV-3 USA/WI/2004-10906 VP1(p) 462 FJ652383 Sedmak et al., 2010  
HPeV-3 BONN-1 (Germany, 2010) CG(p) 7278 JX682576 Eis-Hübinger et al., 2013  
HPeV-3 BONN-2 (Germany, 2010) CG(p) 7153 JX826607 Eis-Hübinger et al., 2013  
             

Human parechovirus 4 (HPeV-4)

HPeV-4 K251176-02 CG 7366 DQ315670 Benschop et al., 2006a  
HPeV-4 T75-4077 CG 7350 AM235750 Al-Sunaidi et al., 2006  
HPeV-4 2006-99 VP1(p) 579 EU077521 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-4 Fuk2001-282 P1 2328 AB433630 Wakatsuki et al., 2008  
HPeV-4 Fuk2005-123 CG 7349 AB433629 Wakatsuki et al., 2008  
HPeV-4 T-98 (Thailand/2005) VP1 758 FJ648755 Pham et al., 2010b  
HPeV-4 A386-07 VP1 696 AB469780 Ito et al., 2010  
HPeV-4 R12644/1999/HUN VP0 to 2A 3046 GU125397 Boros et al., 2010  
HPeV-4 R15492/1999/HUN VP0 to 2A 3046 GU125398 Boros et al., 2010  
             

Human parechovirus 5 (HPeV-5)

HPeV-5 CT86-6760 (Connecticut/86) CG 7352 AF055846 Oberste et al., 1998 12 or 13 bases missing from
the 5' end of the genome
HPeV-5 T92-15 CG 7320 AM235749 Al-Sunaidi et al., 2006  
HPeV-5 2000-1108 VP0(p) 147 EU077510 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-5 2000-1108-2 VP1+2A+2B 1479 EU077511 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-5 2000-1108-3 VP0 917 EU077512 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-5 2000-1108-4 3D(p) 445 EU077513 de Vries et al., 2008  
HPeV-5 BR/53/2006 CG 7348 HQ696575 Drexler et al., 2010  
HPeV-5 BR/77/2006 CG 7348 HQ696576 Drexler et al., 2010  
HPeV-5 CH-ZJ1 (China/2011) CG 7298 JX050181 Sun et al., 2012  
             

Human parechoviruses 6 (HPeV-6)

HPeV-6 NII428-2000 (Japan) VP0 867 AB252577 Watanabe et al., 2007  
HPeV-6 NII2392-2001 (Japan) VP0 867 AB252578 Watanabe et al., 2007  
HPeV-6 NII2667-2001 (Japan) VP0 867 AB252579 Watanabe et al., 2007  
HPeV-6 NII2694-2001 (Japan) VP0 867 AB252580 Watanabe et al., 2007  
HPeV-6 NII2729-2001 (Japan) VP0 867 AB252581 Watanabe et al., 2007  
HPeV-6 NII561-2000 (Japan) CG 7347 AB252582 Watanabe et al., 2007  
HPeV-6 2005-823 CG 7273 EU077518 de Vries et al., 2008 ~70 nt missing from 5' end.
HPeV-6 BNI-67 (Germany) CG 7097 EU022171 Baumgarte et al., 2008 ~ 271 nt missing from 5' end.
HPeV-6 USA/WI/2004-10650 VP1 702 FJ652382 Sedmak et al., 2010  
HPeV-6 PicoBank/HPeV6/a (Finland, 2001) 3D(p) 742 FM242867 Williams et al., 2009  
VP1(p) 606 FM242868 Williams et al., 2009  
HPeV-6 SH6 (China, 2009) CG 7311 FJ888592 Shan et al., 2010 Isolated from a macaque monkey.
HPeV-6 BR/104/2006 CG(p) 6928 HQ696577 Drexler et al., 2010  
             

Human parechoviruses 7 (HPeV-7)

HPeV-7 PAK5045 CG 7146 EU556224 Li et al., 2009  
             

Human parechoviruses 8 (HPeV-8)

HPeV-8 BR/217/2006 CG 7353 EU716175 Drexler et al., 2009  
             

Human parechoviruses 9 (HPeV-9)

HPeV-9 BAN2004-10902 VP1   n/a Oberste et al., unpub.  
             

Human parechoviruses 10 (HPeV-10)

HPeV-10 BAN2004-10903 VP1   n/a Oberste et al., unpub.  
HPeV-10 LK-106 (Sri Lanka, Nov 2005) VP1 702 GQ402515 Pham et al., 2010a  
HPeV-10 LK-103 (Sri Lanka, Nov 2005) VP1 697 GQ402516 Pham et al., 2010a  
HPeV-10 LK-86 (Sri Lanka, Oct 2005) VP1(p) 456 HQ163884 Pham et al., 2011a  
HPeV-10 LK-87 (Sri Lanka, Oct 2005) VP1(p) 429 HQ163885 Pham et al., 2011a  
HPeV-10 LK-100 (Sri Lanka, Nov 2005) VP1(p) 429 HQ163886 Pham et al., 2011a  
             

Human parechoviruses 11 (HPeV-11)

HPeV-11 BAN2004-10905 VP1   n/a Oberste et al., unpub.  
HPeV-11 LK-73 (Sri Lanka, Oct 2005) VP1(p) 665 HQ163873 Pham et al., 2011a  
HPeV-11 LK-223 (Sri Lanka, Jan 2006) VP1(p) 672 HQ163877 Pham et al., 2011a  
             

Human parechoviruses 12 (HPeV-12)

HPeV-12 BAN2004-10904 VP1   n/a Oberste et al., unpub.  
             

Human parechoviruses 13 (HPeV-13)

HPeV-13 BAN2005-10901 VP1   n/a Oberste et al., unpub.  
             

Human parechoviruses 14 (HPeV-14)

HPeV-14 451564 (NL, 2004) VP1(p) 624 FJ373179 Benschop et al., 2008  
             

Human parechoviruses 15 (HPeV-15)

HPeV-15 BAN-11614 VP1   n/a Oberste et al., unpub.  
             

Human parechoviruses 16 (HPeV-16)

HPeV-16 BAN-11615 VP1   n/a Oberste et al., unpub.  
             
CG = complete genome
(p) = partial gene sequence

References

Abed, Y. and Boivin, G. (2005). Molecular characterization of a Canadian human parechovirus (HPeV)-3 isolate and its relationship to other HPeVs. J. Med. Virol. 77: 566-570.

Al-Sunaidi, M., Williams, C.H., Hughes, P.J., Schnurr, D.P. and Stanway G. (2006). Analysis of a new human parechovirus allows the definition of parechovirus types and the identification of RNA structural domains. J. Virol. Sep 27; [Epub ahead of print]

Baumgarte, S., de Souza Luna, L.K., Grywna, K., Panning, M., Drexler, J.F., Karsten, C., Huppertz, H.I. and Drosten, C. (2008). Prevalence, types, and RNA concentrations of human parechoviruses, including a sixth parechovirus type, in stool samples from patients with acute enteritis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 242-248.

Benschop, K.S.M., Schinkel, J., Luken, M.E., van den Broek, P.J.M., Beersma, M.F.C., Menelik, N., van Eijk, H.W.M., Zaaijer, H.L., VandenBroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E., Beld, M.G.H.M. and Wolthers, K.C. (2006a). Fourth human parechovirus serotype. Emerging Infect. Dis. 12, 1572-1575.

Benschop, K.S., Schinkel, J., Minnaar, R.P., Pajkrt, D., Spanjerberg, L., Kraakman, H.C., Berkhout, B., Zaaijer, H.L., Beld, M.G. and Wolthers, K.C. (2006b). Human parechovirus infections in Dutch children and the association between serotype and disease severity. Clin. Infect. Dis. 42: 204-210.

Benschop, K., Thomas, X., Serpenti, C., Molenkamp, R. and Wolthers, K. (2008). High prevalence of human parechovirus (HPeV) genotypes in the Amsterdam region and identification of specific HPeV variants by direct genotyping of stool samples. J. Clin. Microbiol. 46: 3965-3970. Epub 2008 Oct 22.

Boros, A., Uj, M., Pankovics, P. and Reuter, G. (2010). Detection and characterization of human parechoviruses in archived cell cultures, in Hungary. J. Clin. Virol. 47: 379-381.

de Souza Luna, L.K., Baumgarte, S., Grywna, K., Panning, M., Drexler, J.F. and Drosten, C. (2008). Identification of a contemporary human parechovirus type 1 by VIDISCA and characterisation of its full genome. Virol J 5: 26-26.

de Vries, M., Pyrc, K., Berkhout, R., Vermeulen-Oost, W., Dijkman, R., Jebbink, M.F., Berkhout, B., Bruisten, S. and van der Hoek, L. Human parechovirus type 1, 3, 4, 5 and 6 detection in picornavirus cultures. Journal of Clinical Microbiology 46: 759-762.

Drexler, J.F., Grywna, K., Stöcker, A., Silva Almeida, P., Medrado Ribeiro, T.C., Eschbach-Bludau, M. Petersen, N., da Costa Ribeiro, Jr., H. and Drosten, C. (2009). Novel human parechovirus from Brazil. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 15: 310-313. [DOI: 10.3201/eid1502.081028].

Eis-Hübinger, A.M., Eckerle, I., Helmer, A., Reber, U., Dresbach, T., Buderus, S., Drosten, C. and Müller, A. (2013). Two cases of sepsis-like illness in infants caused by human parechovirus traced back to elder siblings with mild gastroenteritis and respiratory symptoms. J. Clin. Microbiol. 51: 715-718.

Ghazi, F., Hughes, P.J., Hyypiä, T. and Stanway, G. (1998). Molecular analysis of human parechovirus 2 (formerly echovirus 23). Journal of General Virology 79: 2641-2650.

Hyypiä, T., Horsnell, C., Maaronen, M., Khan, M., Kalkkinen, N., Auvinen, P., Kinnunen, L. and Stanway, G. (1992). A distinct picornavirus group identified by sequence analysis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci., U.S.A. 89: 8847-8851.

Ito, M., Yamashita, T., Tsuzuki, H., Takeda, N. and Sakae, K. (2004). Isolation and identification of a novel human parechovirus. J. Gen. Virol. 85: 391-398.

Ito, M., Yamashita, T., Tsuzuki, H., Kabashima, Y., Hasegawa, A., Nagaya, S., Kawaguchi, M., Kobayashi, S., Fujiura, A., Sakae, K. and Minagawa, H. (2010). Detection of human parechoviruses from clinical stool samples in Aichi, Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol. 48: 2683-2688.

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