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 ERBV-3

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  Equine rhinitis B virus 3 (ERBV-3) formerly known as acid-stable equine picornavirus.

The acid-stable equine picornaviruses described by Mumford and Thomson (1978) belongs to a third serotype (Knowles, 2005).

Equine picornavirus (EqPV), strain My 63, was isolated from the liver and spleen of an aborted foal (Bohm, 1964). It was less than 28 nm in diameter, contained an RNA genome and was ether, chloroform and trypsin resistant. It was stable over a wide pH range (2.2-8.0) and rapidly inactivated by heating at 50 C. Divalent cations stabilized this isolate against thermal inactivation. No serological investigations were undertaken. However, this virus is no longer available.

During 1974/75 twelve acid stable picornaviruses were isolated from nasopharyngeal swabs taken from horses in England (Mumford and Thomson, 1978). Ten of the viruses were isolated from a single, healthy animal over a period of 18 months. Four of the isolates which were compared in VN tests belonged to a single serotype, but were not identical. The virus isolate 4442/75 was 22 nm in diameter, possessed a RNA genome, was resistant to chloroform, rapidly inactivated at 50 C, but stabilized by 1M MgCl2. It was stable at pH 3.1-7.0 but rapidly inactivated at pH 2.7. The buoyant density in CsCl was 1.40-1.43 g/ml, but increased to 1.44-1.48 g/ml on prolonged centrifugation. EqPV/4442/75 grows, producing CPE, on RK-13, IB-RS-2 and LLC-MK2 cells (N.J. Knowles, unpublished data).

In Japan four acid-labile and two acid-stable picornaviruses were isolated from the saliva of racehorses associated with Getah virus infection. They formed two serological groups correlating with acid-stability/lability (Fukunaga et al., 1981). In a subsequent study the acid-labile viruses were identified as equine rhinovirus 2 (now named equine rhinitis B virus 1), while the acid-stable viruses were shown to be related to 4442/75 (Fukunaga et al., 1983). Both viruses were re-isolated from two of the horses one year later demonstrating a persistent infection. They produced CPE on RK-13 but not on Vero cells.

References

Bohm, H.O. (1964). Uber die isolierung und charakterisierung eines picornavirus vom pferd. Zentbl. Vet. Med. 11: 240-250 .

Fukunaga, Y., Kumanomido, T., Imagawa, H., Ando, Y., Kamada, M., Wada, R. and Akiyama, Y. (1981). Isolation of picornavirus from horses associated with Getah virus infection. Jap. J. vet. Sci. 43: 569-572 .

Fukunaga, Y., Kumanomido, T., Kamada, M. and Wada, R. (1983). Equine picornavirus: isolation of virus from the oral cavity of healthy horses. Bull. Equine Res. Inst. 20: 103-109.

Mumford, J.A. and Thomson, G.R. (1978). Studies on picornaviruses isolated from the respiratory tract of horses. Proc. 4th. Int. Congress on Equine Infect Diseases. Ed. by J.T. Bryans and H. Gerber. Vet. Pub. Inc., Princeton, N.J. Lyon, Sept., 1976 pp. 419-429.