A Newly Recognised Gastroenteritis
Virus of Man
The complete nucleotide sequence of Aichi virus
AB010145) has recently been determined by Drs.
T. Yamashita and N. Takeda
at the Aichi Prefectural Institute of Public Health, Aichi, Japan (Yamashita
et al., 1998). The Aichi virus genome (isolate A846/88) is
8,251 nucleotides long, excluding the poly(A) tail and has 5' and 3'
untranslated regions of 712 and 240 nucleotides, respectively. The
single long open reading frame of 7,302 nucleotides protentially encodes
a 2,433 residue polyprotein. This putative polyprotein was predicted to
contain the typical picornavirus polypeptides, VP0, VP3, VP1, 2A, 2B,
2C, 3A, 3B, 3C and 3D. The capsid proteins appear to be preceeded by a
leader polypeptide approximately 145 amino acids long. Phylogenetic
analysis suggests that Aichi virus could be placed in a new picornavirus
Aichi virus was first recognised in 1989 as the cause
of oyster-associated non-bacterial gastroenteritis in man (Yamashita
et al., 1991). Aichi virus is cytopathic in BS-C-1 cells.
Most interestingly Aichi virus appears to morphologically resemble
astroviruses when examined by electron microscopy. Antibody surveys in
Japan showed that exposure increased with age reaching about 80% in
persons 35 years old (Yamashita
et al., 1993). More recently Aichi virus was isolated from
Pakistani children with gastroenteritis and from Japanese travellers
returning from tours of Southeast Asian countries (Indonesia, Thailand
and Malaysia) who were complaining of similar symptoms (Yamashita
et al., 1995).
Yamashita, T., Kobayashi, S., Sakae,
K., Nakata, S., Chiba, S., Ishihara, Y. and Isomura, S. (1991).
Isolation of cytopathic small round viruses with BS-C-1 cells from
patients with gastroenteritis. J. Infect. Dis. 164: 954-957.
Yamashita, T., Sakae, K., Ishihara,
Y., Isomura, S. and Utagawa, E. (1993). Prevalence of newly isolated,
cytopathic small round virus (Aichi strain) in Japan. J. Clin. Microbiol.
Yamashita, T., Sakae, K., Kobayashi,
S., Ishihara, Y., Miyake, T., Mubina, A. and Isomura, S. (1995).
Isolation of cytopathic small round virus (Aichi virus) from Pakistani
children and Japanese travelers from Southeast Asia. Microbiol. Immunol.
Yamashita, T., Sakae, K., Tsuzuki, H.,
Suzuki, Y., Ishikawa, N., Takeda, N., Miyamura, T. and Yamazaki, S.
(1998). Complete nucleotide sequence and genetic organization of Aichi
virus, a distinct member of the Picornaviridae associated with
acute gastroenteritis in humans. J. Virol. 72: 8408-8412.
Oh, D.Y., Silva, P.A., Hauroeder, B., Diedrich, S.,
Cardoso, D.D., Schreier, E. (2006). Molecular characterization of the
first Aichi viruses isolated in Europe and in South America. Arch Virol.
151: 1199-1206. Epub Jan 19 2006.